Nagarjuna offers the Nagarjuna offers the following definition of virtue and non-virtue: "Desire, hatred, ignorance, and The actions they generate are non-virtues. Non-desire, non-hatred, non-ignorance, And the actions they generate are virtues." Guru Riponche offers a similar definition: "If any teaching you study, reflect upon, or expound becomes an effective remedy against your disturbing emotions as well as an aid for allowing the pure Dharma to take birth in your being, then that is called a Mahayana teaching and is unmistaken. No matter how much you may be acclaimed as learned in study, exposition, and meditation, if your intention is only the eight worldly concerns, your activity is called a black Dharma practice." Any ritual or practice that is motivated by negative emotions and attachment to the eight worldly dharmas would be a Buddhist definition of black magic.